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All in-game objects in Evennia, be it characters, chairs, monsters, rooms or hand grenades are jointly referred to as an Evennia Object. An Object is generally something you can look and interact with in the game world. When a message travels from the client, the Object-level is the last stop.

Objects form the core of Evennia and is probably what you’ll spend most time working with. Objects are Typeclassed entities.

An Evennia Object is, by definition, a Python class that includes evennia.objects.objects.DefaultObject among its parents. Evennia defines several subclasses of DefaultObject:

  • Object - the base in-game entity. Found in mygame/typeclasses/objects.py. Inherits directly from DefaultObject.

  • Characters - the normal in-game Character, controlled by a player. Found in mygame/typeclasses/characters.py. Inherits from DefaultCharacter, which is turn a child of DefaultObject.

  • Rooms - a location in the game world. Found in mygame/typeclasses/rooms.py. Inherits from DefaultRoom, which is in turn a child of DefaultObject).

  • Exits - represents a one-way connection to another location. Found in mygame/typeclasses/exits.py (inherits from DefaultExit, which is in turn a child of DefaultObject).


Inheritance Tree:

       │       ┌────────────┐
       │ ┌─────►ObjectParent│
       │ │     └────────────┘

For an explanation of ObjectParent, see next section.

The Object class is meant to be used as the basis for creating things that are neither characters, rooms or exits - anything from weapons and armour, equipment and houses can be represented by extending the Object class. Depending on your game, this also goes for NPCs and monsters (in some games you may want to treat NPCs as just an un-puppeted Character instead).

You should not use Objects for game systems. Don’t use an ‘invisible’ Object for tracking weather, combat, economy or guild memberships - that’s what Scripts are for.

ObjectParent - Adding common functionality

Object, as well as Character, Room and Exit classes all additionally inherit from mygame.typeclasses.objects.ObjectParent.

ObjectParent is an empty ‘mixin’ class. You can add stuff to this class that you want all in-game entities to have.

Here is an example:

# in mygame/typeclasses/objects.py
# ... 

from evennia.objects.objects import DefaultObject 

class ObjectParent:
    def at_pre_get(self, getter, **kwargs):
       # make all entities by default un-pickable
      return False

Now all of Object, Exit. Room and Character default to not being able to be picked up using the get command.

Working with children of DefaultObject

This functionality is shared by all sub-classes of DefaultObject. You can easily add your own in-game behavior by either modifying one of the typeclasses in your game dir or by inheriting further from them.

You can put your new typeclass directly in the relevant module, or you could organize your code in some other way. Here we assume we make a new module mygame/typeclasses/flowers.py:

    # mygame/typeclasses/flowers.py

    from typeclasses.objects import Object

    class Rose(Object):
        This creates a simple rose object        
        def at_object_creation(self):
            "this is called only once, when object is first created"
            # add a persistent attribute 'desc' 
            # to object (silly example).
            self.db.desc = "This is a pretty rose with thorns."     

Now you just need to point to the class Rose with the create command to make a new rose:

 create/drop MyRose:flowers.Rose

What the create command actually does is to use the evennia.create_object function. You can do the same thing yourself in code:

    from evennia import create_object
    new_rose = create_object("typeclasses.flowers.Rose", key="MyRose")

(The create command will auto-append the most likely path to your typeclass, if you enter the call manually you have to give the full path to the class. The create.create_object function is powerful and should be used for all coded object creating (so this is what you use when defining your own building commands).

This particular Rose class doesn’t really do much, all it does it make sure the attribute desc(which is what the look command looks for) is pre-set, which is pretty pointless since you will usually want to change this at build time (using the desc command or using the Spawner).

Properties and functions on Objects

Beyond the properties assigned to all typeclassed objects (see that page for a list of those), the Object also has the following custom properties:

  • aliases - a handler that allows you to add and remove aliases from this object. Use aliases.add() to add a new alias and aliases.remove() to remove one.

  • location - a reference to the object currently containing this object.

  • home is a backup location. The main motivation is to have a safe place to move the object to if its location is destroyed. All objects should usually have a home location for safety.

  • destination - this holds a reference to another object this object links to in some way. Its main use is for Exits, it’s otherwise usually unset.

  • nicks - as opposed to aliases, a Nick holds a convenient nickname replacement for a real name, word or sequence, only valid for this object. This mainly makes sense if the Object is used as a game character - it can then store briefer shorts, example so as to quickly reference game commands or other characters. Use nicks.add(alias, realname) to add a new one.

  • account - this holds a reference to a connected Account controlling this object (if any). Note that this is set also if the controlling account is not currently online - to test if an account is online, use the has_account property instead.

  • sessions - if account field is set and the account is online, this is a list of all active sessions (server connections) to contact them through (it may be more than one if multiple connections are allowed in settings).

  • has_account - a shorthand for checking if an online account is currently connected to this object.

  • contents - this returns a list referencing all objects ‘inside’ this object (i,e. which has this object set as their location).

  • exits - this returns all objects inside this object that are Exits, that is, has the destination property set.

  • appearance_template - this helps formatting the look of the Object when someone looks at it (see next section).l

  • cmdset - this is a handler that stores all command sets defined on the object (if any).

  • scripts - this is a handler that manages Scripts attached to the object (if any).

The Object also has a host of useful utility functions. See the function headers in src/objects/objects.py for their arguments and more details.

  • msg() - this function is used to send messages from the server to an account connected to this object.

  • msg_contents() - calls msg on all objects inside this object.

  • search() - this is a convenient shorthand to search for a specific object, at a given location or globally. It’s mainly useful when defining commands (in which case the object executing the command is named caller and one can do caller.search() to find objects in the room to operate on).

  • execute_cmd() - Lets the object execute the given string as if it was given on the command line.

  • move_to - perform a full move of this object to a new location. This is the main move method and will call all relevant hooks, do all checks etc.

  • clear_exits() - will delete all Exits to and from this object.

  • clear_contents() - this will not delete anything, but rather move all contents (except Exits) to their designated Home locations.

  • delete() - deletes this object, first calling clear_exits() and clear_contents().

  • return_appearance is the main hook letting the object visually describe itself.

The Object Typeclass defines many more hook methods beyond at_object_creation. Evennia calls these hooks at various points. When implementing your custom objects, you will inherit from the base parent and overload these hooks with your own custom code. See evennia.objects.objects for an updated list of all the available hooks or the API for DefaultObject here.

Changing an Object’s appearance

When you type look <obj>, this is the sequence of events that happen:

  1. The command checks if the caller of the command (the ‘looker’) passes the view lock of the target obj. If not, they will not find anything to look at (this is how you make objects invisible).

  2. The look command calls caller.at_look(obj) - that is, the at_look hook on the ‘looker’ (the caller of the command) is called to perform the look on the target object. The command will echo whatever this hook returns.

  3. caller.at_look calls and returns the outcome of obj.return_apperance(looker, **kwargs). Here looker is the caller of the command. In other words, we ask the obj to descibe itself to looker.

  4. obj.return_appearance makes use of its .appearance_template property and calls a slew of helper-hooks to populate this template. This is how the template looks by default:

         appearance_template = """
  5. Each field of the template is populated by a matching helper method (and their default returns):

    • name -> obj.get_display_name(looker, **kwargs) - returns obj.name.

    • desc -> obj.get_display_desc(looker, **kwargs) - returns obj.db.desc.

    • header -> obj.get_display_header(looker, **kwargs) - empty by default.

    • footer -> obj.get_display_footer(looker, **kwargs) - empty by default.

    • exits -> obj.get_display_exits(looker, **kwargs) - a list of DefaultExit-inheriting objects found inside this object (usually only present if obj is a Room).

    • characters -> obj.get_display_characters(looker, **kwargs) - a list of DefaultCharacter-inheriting entities inside this object.

    • things -> obj.get_display_things(looker, **kwargs) - a list of all other Objects inside obj.

  6. obj.format_appearance(string, looker, **kwargs) is the last step the populated template string goes through. This can be used for final adjustments, such as stripping whitespace. The return from this method is what the user will see.

As each of these hooks (and the template itself) can be overridden in your child class, you can customize your look extensively. You can also have objects look different depending on who is looking at them. The extra **kwargs are not used by default, but are there to allow you to pass extra data into the system if you need it (like light conditions etc.)