This is considered an advanced topic.
Synchronous versus Asynchronous¶
Most program code operates synchronously. This means that each statement in your code gets processed and finishes before the next can begin. This makes for easy-to-understand code. It is also a requirement in many cases - a subsequent piece of code often depend on something calculated or defined in a previous statement.
Consider this piece of code in a traditional Python program:
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print("before call ...") long_running_function() print("after call ...")
When run, this will print
"before call ...", after which the
long_running_function gets to work
for however long time. Only once that is done, the system prints
"after call ...". Easy and
logical to follow. Most of Evennia work in this way and often it’s important that commands get
executed in the same strict order they were coded.
Evennia, via Twisted, is a single-process multi-user server. In simple terms this means that it
swiftly switches between dealing with player input so quickly that each player feels like they do
things at the same time. This is a clever illusion however: If one user, say, runs a command
long_running_function, all other players are effectively forced to wait until it
Now, it should be said that on a modern computer system this is rarely an issue. Very few commands run so long that other users notice it. And as mentioned, most of the time you want to enforce all commands to occur in strict sequence.
When delays do become noticeable and you don’t care in which order the command actually completes,
you can run it asynchronously. This makes use of the
run_async() function in
run_async(function, *args, **kwargs)
function will be called asynchronously with
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from evennia import utils print("before call ...") utils.run_async(long_running_function) print("after call ...")
Now, when running this you will find that the program will not wait around for
long_running_function to finish. In fact you will see
"before call ..." and
"after call ..."
printed out right away. The long-running function will run in the background and you (and other
users) can go on as normal.
Customizing asynchronous operation¶
A complication with using asynchronous calls is what to do with the result from that call. What if
long_running_function returns a value that you need? It makes no real sense to put any lines of
code after the call to try to deal with the result from
long_running_function above - as we saw
"after call ..." got printed long before
long_running_function was finished, making that
line quite pointless for processing any data from the function. Instead one has to use callbacks.
utils.run_async takes reserved kwargs that won’t be passed into the long-running function:
at_return(r)(the callback) is called when the asynchronous function (
long_running_functionabove) finishes successfully. The argument
rwill then be the return value of that function (or
def at_return(r): print(r)
at_return_kwargs- an optional dictionary that will be fed as keyword arguments to the
at_err(e)(the errback) is called if the asynchronous function fails and raises an exception. This exception is passed to the errback wrapped in a Failure object
e. If you do not supply an errback of your own, Evennia will automatically add one that silently writes errors to the evennia log. An example of an errback is found below:
def at_err(e): print("There was an error:", str(e))
at_err_kwargs- an optional dictionary that will be fed as keyword arguments to the
An example of making an asynchronous call from inside a Command definition:
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from evennia import utils, Command class CmdAsync(Command): key = "asynccommand" def func(self): def long_running_function(): #[... lots of time-consuming code ...] return final_value def at_return_function(r): self.caller.msg("The final value is %s" % r) def at_err_function(e): self.caller.msg("There was an error: %s" % e) # do the async call, setting all callbacks utils.run_async(long_running_function, at_return=at_return_function, at_err=at_err_function)
That’s it - from here on we can forget about
long_running_function and go on with what else need
to be done. Whenever it finishes, the
at_return_function function will be called and the final
pop up for us to see. If not we will see an error message.
delay function is a much simpler sibling to
run_async. It is in fact just a way to delay the
execution of a command until a future time. This is equivalent to something like
except delay is asynchronous while
sleep would lock the entire server for the duration of the
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from evennia.utils import delay # [...] # e.g. inside a Command, where `self.caller` is available def callback(obj): obj.msg("Returning!") delay(10, callback, self.caller)
This will delay the execution of the callback for 10 seconds. This function is explored much more in the Command Duration Tutorial.
You can also try the following snippet just see how it works:
@py from evennia.utils import delay; delay(10, lambda who: who.msg("Test!"), self)
Wait 10 seconds and ‘Test!’ should be echoed back to you.
The @interactive decorator¶
As of Evennia 0.9, the
is available. This makes any function or method possible to ‘pause’ and/or await player input
in an interactive way.
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from evennia.utils import interactive @interactive def myfunc(caller): while True: caller.msg("Getting ready to wait ...") yield(5) caller.msg("Now 5 seconds have passed.") response = yield("Do you want to wait another 5 secs?") if response.lower() not in ("yes", "y"): break
@interactive decorator gives the function the ability to pause. The use
yield(seconds) will do just that - it will asynchronously pause for the
number of seconds given before continuing. This is technically equivalent to
call_async with a callback that continues after 5 secs. But the code
@interactive is a little easier to follow.
@interactive function, the
response = yield("question") question
allows you to ask the user for input. You can then process the input, just like
you would if you used the Python
input function. There is one caveat to this
functionality though - it will only work if the function/method has an
argument named exactly
caller. This is because internally Evennia will look
caller argument and treat that as the source of input.
All of this makes the
@interactive decorator very useful. But it comes with a
few caveats. Notably, decorating a function/method with
@interactive turns it
into a Python generator. The most
common issue is that you cannot use
return <value> from a generator (just an
return works). To return a value from a function/method you have decorated
@interactive, you must instead use a special Twisted function
twisted.internet.defer.returnValue. Evennia also makes this function
conveniently available from
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from evennia.utils import interactive, returnValue @interactive def myfunc(): # ... result = 10 # this must be used instead of `return result` returnValue(result)
Overall, be careful with choosing when to use asynchronous calls. It is mainly useful for large administration operations that have no direct influence on the game world (imports and backup operations come to mind). Since there is no telling exactly when an asynchronous call actually ends, using them for in-game commands is to potentially invite confusion and inconsistencies (and very hard-to-reproduce bugs).
The very first synchronous example above is not really correct in the case of Twisted, which is
inherently an asynchronous server. Notably you might find that you will not see the first
before call ... text being printed out right away. Instead all texts could end up being delayed until
after the long-running process finishes. So all commands will retain their relative order as
expected, but they may appear with delays or in groups.
run_async is just a very thin and simplified wrapper around a
Twisted Deferred object; the
up a default errback also if none is supplied. If you know what you are doing there is nothing
stopping you from bypassing the utility function, building a more sophisticated callback chain after
your own liking.