# Tutorial Searching For Objects¶

You will often want to operate on a specific object in the database. For example when a player attacks a named target you’ll need to find that target so it can be attacked. Or when a rain storm draws in you need to find all outdoor-rooms so you can show it raining in them. This tutorial explains Evennia’s tools for searching.

## Things to search for¶

The first thing to consider is the base type of the thing you are searching for. Evennia organizes its database into a few main tables: Objects, Accounts, Scripts, Channels, Messages and Help Entries. Most of the time you’ll likely spend your time searching for Objects and the occasional Accounts.

So to find an entity, what can be searched for?

• The key is the name of the entity. While you can get this from obj.key the database field is actually named obj.db_key - this is useful to know only when you do direct database queries. The one exception is Accounts, where the database field for .key is instead named username (this is a Django requirement). When you don’t specify search-type, you’ll usually search based on key. Aliases are extra names given to Objects using something like @alias or obj.aliases.add('name'). The main search functions (see below) will automatically search for aliases whenever you search by-key.

• Tags are the main way to group and identify objects in Evennia. Tags can most often be used (sometimes together with keys) to uniquely identify an object. For example, even though you have two locations with the same name, you can separate them by their tagging (this is how Evennia implements ‘zones’ seen in other systems). Tags can also have categories, to further organize your data for quick lookups.

• An object’s Attributes can also used to find an object. This can be very useful but since Attributes can store almost any data they are far less optimized to search for than Tags or keys.

• The object’s Typeclass indicate the sub-type of entity. A Character, Flower or Sword are all types of Objects. A Bot is a kind of Account. The database field is called typeclass_path and holds the full Python-path to the class. You can usually specify the typeclass as an argument to Evennia’s search functions as well as use the class directly to limit queries.

• The location is only relevant for Objects but is a very common way to weed down the number of candidates before starting to search. The reason is that most in-game commands tend to operate on things nearby (in the same room) so the choices can be limited from the start.

• The database id or the ‘#dbref’ is unique (and never re-used) within each database table. So while there is one and only one Object with dbref #42 there could also be an Account or Script with the dbref #42 at the same time. In almost all search methods you can replace the “key” search criterion with "#dbref" to search for that id. This can occasionally be practical and may be what you are used to from other code bases. But it is considered bad practice in Evennia to rely on hard-coded #dbrefs to do your searches. It makes your code tied to the exact layout of the database. It’s also not very maintainable to have to remember abstract numbers. Passing the actual objects around and searching by Tags and/or keys will usually get you what you need.

## Getting objects inside another¶

All in-game Objects have a .contents property that returns all objects ‘inside’ them (that is, all objects which has its .location property set to that object. This is a simple way to get everything in a room and is also faster since this lookup is cached and won’t hit the database.

• roomobj.contents returns a list of all objects inside roomobj.

• obj.contents same as for a room, except this usually represents the object’s inventory

• obj.location.contents gets everything in obj’s location (including obj itself).

• roomobj.exits returns all exits starting from roomobj (Exits are here defined as Objects with their destination field set).

• obj.location.contents_get(exclude=obj) - this helper method returns all objects in obj’s location except obj.

## Queries in Django¶

Evennia’s search methods should be sufficient for the vast majority of situations. But eventually you might find yourself trying to figure out how to get searches for unusual circumstances: Maybe you want to find all characters who are not in rooms tagged as hangouts and have the lycanthrope tag and whose names start with a vowel, but not with ‘Ab’, and only if they have 3 or more objects in their inventory … You could in principle use one of the earlier search methods to find all candidates and then loop over them with a lot of if statements in raw Python. But you can do this much more efficiently by querying the database directly.

Enter django’s querysets. A QuerySet is the representation of a database query and can be modified as desired. Only once one tries to retrieve the data of that query is it evaluated and does an actual database request. This is useful because it means you can modify a query as much as you want (even pass it around) and only hit the database once you are happy with it. Evennia’s search functions are themselves an even higher level wrapper around Django’s queries, and many search methods return querysets. That means that you could get the result from a search function and modify the resulting query to your own ends to further tweak what you search for.

Evaluated querysets can either contain objects such as Character objects, or lists of values derived from the objects. Queries usually use the ‘manager’ object of a class, which by convention is the .objects attribute of a class. For example, a query of Accounts that contain the letter ‘a’ could be:

    from typeclasses.accounts import Account



The filter method of a manager takes arguments that allow you to define the query, and you can continue to refine the query by calling additional methods until you evaluate the queryset, causing the query to be executed and return a result. For example, if you have the result above, you could, without causing the queryset to be evaluated yet, get rid of matches that contain the letter ‘e by doing this:

queryset = result.exclude(username__contains='e')



You could also have chained .exclude directly to the end of the previous line.

Once you try to access the result, the queryset will be evaluated automatically under the hood:

accounts = list(queryset)  # this fills list with matches

for account in queryset:
# do something with account

accounts = queryset[:4]  # get first four matches
account = queryset[0]  # get first match
# etc



### Limiting by typeclass¶

Although Characters, Exits, Rooms, and other children of DefaultObject all shares the same underlying database table, Evennia provides a shortcut to do more specific queries only for those typeclasses. For example, to find only Characters whose names start with ‘A’, you might do:

Character.objects.filter(db_key__startswith="A")



If Character has a subclass Npc and you wanted to find only Npc’s you’d instead do

Npc.objects.filter(db_key__startswith="A")



If you wanted to search both Characters and all its subclasses (like Npc) you use the *_family method which is added by Evennia:

Character.objects.filter_family(db_key__startswith="A")


The higher up in the inheritance hierarchy you go the more objects will be included in these searches. There is one special case, if you really want to include everything from a given database table. You do that by searching on the database model itself. These are named ObjectDB, AccountDB, ScriptDB etc.

from evennia import AccountDB

# all Accounts in the database, regardless of typeclass
all = AccountDB.objects.all()



Here are the most commonly used methods to use with the objects managers:

• filter - query for a listing of objects based on search criteria. Gives empty queryset if none were found.

• get - query for a single match - raises exception if none were found, or more than one was found.

• all - get all instances of the particular type.

• filter_family - like filter, but search all sub classes as well.

• get_family - like get, but search all sub classes as well.

• all_family - like all, but return entities of all subclasses as well.

## Multiple conditions¶

If you pass more than one keyword argument to a query method, the query becomes an AND relationship. For example, if we want to find characters whose names start with “A” and are also werewolves (have the lycanthrope tag), we might do:

queryset = Character.objects.filter(db_key__startswith="A", db_tags__db_key="lycanthrope")


To exclude lycanthropes currently in rooms tagged as hangouts, we might tack on an .exclude as before:

queryset = quersyet.exclude(db_location__db_tags__db_key="hangout")


Note the syntax of the keywords in building the queryset. For example, db_location is the name of the database field sitting on (in this case) the Character (Object). Double underscore __ works like dot-notation in normal Python (it’s used since dots are not allowed in keyword names). So the instruction db_location__db_tags__db_key="hangout" should be read as such:

1. “On the Character object … (this comes from us building this queryset using the Character.objects manager)

2. … get the value of the db_location field … (this references a Room object, normally)

3. … on that location, get the value of the db_tags field … (this is a many-to-many field that can be treated like an object for this purpose. It references all tags on the location)

4. … through the db_tag manager, find all Tags having a field db_key set to the value “hangout”.”

This may seem a little complex at first, but this syntax will work the same for all queries. Just remember that all database-fields in Evennia are prefaced with db_. So even though Evennia is nice enough to alias the db_key field so you can normally just do char.key to get a character’s name, the database field is actually called db_key and the real name must be used for the purpose of building a query.

Don’t confuse database fields with Attributes you set via obj.db.attr = 'foo' or obj.attributes.add(). Attributes are custom database entities linked to an object. They are not separate fields on that object like db_key or db_location are. You can get attached Attributes manually through the db_attributes many-to-many field in the same way as db_tags above.

### Complex queries¶

What if you want to have a query with with OR conditions or negated requirements (NOT)? Enter Django’s Complex Query object, Q. Q() objects take a normal django keyword query as its arguments. The special thing is that these Q objects can then be chained together with set operations: | for OR, & for AND, and preceded with ~ for NOT to build a combined, complex query.

In our original Lycanthrope example we wanted our werewolves to have names that could start with any vowel except for the specific beginning “ab”.

from django.db.models import Q
from typeclasses.characters import Character

query = Q()
for letter in ("aeiouy"):
query |= Q(db_key__istartswith=letter)
query &= ~Q(db_key__istartswith="ab")
query = Character.objects.filter(query)

list_of_lycanthropes = list(query)


In the above example, we construct our query our of several Q objects that each represent one part of the query. We iterate over the list of vowels, and add an OR condition to the query using |= (this is the same idea as using += which may be more familiar). Each OR condition checks that the name starts with one of the valid vowels. Afterwards, we add (using &=) an AND condition that is negated with the ~ symbol. In other words we require that any match should not start with the string “ab”. Note that we don’t actually hit the database until we convert the query to a list at the end (we didn’t need to do that either, but could just have kept the query until we needed to do something with the matches).

### Annotations and F objects¶

What if we wanted to filter on some condition that isn’t represented easily by a field on the object? Maybe we want to find rooms only containing five or more objects?

We could retrieve all interesting candidates and run them through a for-loop to get and count their .content properties. We’d then just return a list of only those objects with enough contents. It would look something like this (note: don’t actually do this!):

# probably not a good idea to do it this way

from typeclasses.rooms import Room

queryset = Room.objects.all()  # get all Rooms
rooms = [room for room in queryset if len(room.contents) >= 5]



Once the number of rooms in your game increases, this could become quite expensive. Additionally, in some particular contexts, like when using the web features of Evennia, you must have the result as a queryset in order to use it in operations, such as in Django’s admin interface when creating list filters.

Enter F objects and annotations. So-called F expressions allow you to do a query that looks at a value of each object in the database, while annotations allow you to calculate and attach a value to a query. So, let’s do the same example as before directly in the database:

from typeclasses.rooms import Room
from django.db.models import Count

room_count = Room.objects.annotate(num_objects=Count('locations_set'))
queryset = room_count.filter(num_objects__gte=5)

rooms = (Room.objects.annotate(num_objects=Count('locations_set'))
.filter(num_objects__gte=5))

rooms = list(rooms)



Here we first create an annotation num_objects of type Count, which is a Django class. Note that use of location_set in that Count. The *_set is a back-reference automatically created by Django. In this case it allows you to find all objects that has the current object as location. Once we have those, they are counted. Next we filter on this annotation, using the name num_objects as something we can filter for. We use num_objects__gte=5 which means that num_objects should be greater than 5. This is a little harder to get one’s head around but much more efficient than lopping over all objects in Python.

What if we wanted to compare two parameters against one another in a query? For example, what if instead of having 5 or more objects, we only wanted objects that had a bigger inventory than they had tags? Here an F-object comes in handy:

from django.db.models import Count, F
from typeclasses.rooms import Room

result = (Room.objects.annotate(num_objects=Count('locations_set'),
num_tags=Count('db_tags'))
.filter(num_objects__gt=F('num_tags')))


F-objects allows for wrapping an annotated structure on the right-hand-side of the expression. It will be evaluated on-the-fly as needed.

### Grouping By and Values¶

Suppose you used tags to mark someone belonging an organization. Now you want to make a list and need to get the membership count of every organization all at once. That’s where annotations and the .values_list queryset method come in. Values/Values Lists are an alternate way of returning a queryset - instead of objects, you get a list of dicts or tuples that hold selected properties from the the matches. It also allows you a way to ‘group up’ queries for returning information. For example, to get a display about each tag per Character and the names of the tag:

result = (Character.objects.filter(db_tags__db_category="organization")
.values_list('db_tags__db_key')
.annotate(cnt=Count('id'))
.order_by('-cnt'))


The result queryset will be a list of tuples ordered in descending order by the number of matches, in a format like the following:

[('Griatch Fanclub', 3872), ("Chainsol's Ainneve Testers", 2076), ("Blaufeuer's Whitespace Fixers",
1903),
("Volund's Bikeshed Design Crew", 1764), ("Tehom's Misanthropes", 1)]