# 10. Creating things¶

We have already created some things - dragons for example. There are many different things to create in Evennia though. In the Typeclasses tutorial, we noted that there are 7 default Typeclasses coming with Evennia out of the box:

Evennia base typeclass

mygame.typeclasses child

description

evennia.DefaultObject

typeclasses.objects.Object

Everything with a location

evennia.DefaultCharacter (child of DefaultObject)

typeclasses.characters.Character

Player avatars

evennia.DefaultRoom (child of DefaultObject)

typeclasses.rooms.Room

In-game locations

evennia.DefaultExit (chld of DefaultObject)

typeclasses.exits.Exit

evennia.DefaultAccount

typeclasses.accounts.Account

A player account

evennia.DefaultChannel

typeclasses.channels.Channel

In-game comms

evennia.DefaultScript

typeclasses.scripts.Script

Entities with no location

Given you have an imported Typeclass, there are four ways to create an instance of it:

• Firstly, you can call the class directly, and then .save() it:

  obj = SomeTypeClass(db_key=...)
obj.save()


This has the drawback of being two operations; you must also import the class and have to pass the actual database field names, such as db_key instead of key as keyword arguments. This is closest to how a ‘normal’ Python class works, but is not recommended.

• Secondly you can use the Evennia creation helpers:

  obj = evennia.create_object(SomeTypeClass, key=...)


This is the recommended way if you are trying to create things in Python. The first argument can either be the class or the python-path to the typeclass, like "path.to.SomeTypeClass". It can also be None in which case the Evennia default will be used. While all the creation methods are available on evennia, they are actually implemented in evennia/utils/create.py. Each of the different base classes have their own creation function, like create_account and create_script etc.

• Thirdly, you can use the .create method on the Typeclass itself:

obj, err = SomeTypeClass.create(key=...)


Since .create is a method on the typeclass, this form is useful if you want to customize how the creation process works for your custom typeclasses. Note that it returns two values - the obj is either the new object or None, in which case err should be a list of error-strings detailing what went wrong.

• Finally, you can create objects using an in-game command, such as

  create obj:path.to.SomeTypeClass


As a developer you are usually best off using the other methods, but a command is usually the only way to let regular players or builders without Python-access help build the game world.

## 10.1. Creating Objects¶

An Object is one of the most common creation-types. These are entities that inherits from DefaultObject at any distance. They have an existence in the game world and includes rooms, characters, exits, weapons, flower pots and castles.

> py
> import evennia
> rose = evennia.create_object(key="rose")


Since we didn’t specify the typeclass as the first argument, the default given by settings.BASE_OBJECT_TYPECLASS (typeclasses.objects.Object out of the box) will be used.

The create_object has a lot of options. A more detailed example in code:

from evennia import create_object, search_object

lasgun = create_object("typeclasses.objects.guns.LasGun",
key="lasgun",
attributes=[("desc", "A fearsome Lasgun.")])



Here we set the location of a weapon as well as gave it an Attribute desc, which is what the look command will use when looking this and other things.

## 10.2. Creating Rooms, Characters and Exits¶

Characters, Rooms and Exits are all subclasses of DefaultObject. So there is for example no separate create_character, you just create characters with create_object pointing to the Character typeclass.

### 10.2.1. Linking Exits and Rooms in code¶

An Exit is a one-way link between rooms. For example, east could be an Exit between the Forest room and the Meadow room.

Meadow -> east -> Forest


The east exit has a key of east, a location of Meadow and a destination of Forest. If you wanted to be able to go back from Forest to Meadow, you’d need to create a new Exit, say, west, where location is Forest and destination is Meadow.

Meadow -> east -> Forest


In-game you do this with tunnel and dig commands, bit if you want to ever set up these links in code, you can do it like this:

from evennia import create_object
from mygame.typeclasses import rooms, exits

# rooms
forest = create_object(rooms.Room, key="Forest")

# exits


## 10.3. Creating Accounts¶

An Account is an out-of-character (OOC) entity, with no existence in the game world. You can find the parent class for Accounts in typeclasses/accounts.py.

Normally, you want to create the Account when a user authenticates. By default, this happens in the create account and login default commands in the UnloggedInCmdSet. This means that customizing this just means replacing those commands!

So normally you’d modify those commands rather than make something from scratch. But here’s the principle:

from evennia import create_account

new_account = create_account(
permissions=["Player"],
typeclass="typeclasses.accounts.MyAccount"
)


The inputs are usually taken from the player via the command. The email must be given, but can be None if you are not using it. The accountname must be globally unique on the server. The password is stored encrypted in the database. If typeclass is not given, the settings.BASE_ACCOUNT_TYPECLASS will be used (typeclasses.accounts.Account).

## 10.4. Creating Channels¶

A Channel acts like a switchboard for sending in-game messages between users; like an IRC- or discord channel but inside the game.

Users interact with channels via the channel command:

channel/all
channel/create channelname
channel/who channelname
channel/sub channel name
...
(see 'help channel')


If a channel named, say, myguild exists, a user can send a message to it just by writing the channel name:

> myguild Hello! I have some questions ...


Creating channels follows a familiar syntax:

from evennia import create_channel

new_channel = create_channel(channelname)


Channels can also be auto-created by the server by setting the DEFAULT_CHANNELS setting. See Channels documentation for details.

## 10.5. Creating Scripts¶

A Script is an entity that has no in-game location. It can be used to store arbitrary data and is often used for game systems that need persistent storage but which you can’t ‘look’ at in-game. Examples are economic systems, weather and combat handlers.

Scripts are multi-use and depending on what they do, a given script can either be ‘global’ or be attached “to” another object (like a Room or Character).

from evennia import create_script, search_object
# global script
new_script = create_script("typeclasses.scripts.MyScript", key="myscript")

# on-object script

A convenient way to create global scripts is define them in the GLOBAL_SCRIPTS setting; Evennia will then make sure to initialize them. Scripts also have an optional ‘timer’ component. See the dedicated Script documentation for more info.