# 11. Searching for things¶

We have gone through how to create the various entities in Evennia. But creating something is of little use if we cannot find and use it afterwards.

## 11.1. Main search functions¶

The base tools are the evennia.search_* functions, such as evennia.search_object.

import evennia

roses = evennia.search_object(key="rose")
accts = evennia.search_account(key="MyAccountName", email="foo@bar.com")


{sidebar} Querysets

What is returned from the main search functions is actually a queryset. They can be treated like lists except that they can't modified in-place. We'll discuss querysets in the next lesson <Django-queries>_.


Strings are always case-insensitive, so searching for "rose", "Rose" or "rOsE" give the same results. It’s important to remember that what is returned from these search methods is a listing of zero, one or more elements - all the matches to your search. To get the first match:

rose = roses[0]


Often you really want all matches to the search parameters you specify. In other situations, having zero or more than one match is a sign of a problem and you need to handle this case yourself.

    the_one_ring = evennia.search_object(key="The one Ring")
if not the_one_ring:
# handle not finding the ring at all
elif len(the_one_ring) > 1:
# handle finding more than one ring
else:
# ok - exactly one ring found
the_one_ring = the_one_ring[0]


There are equivalent search functions for all the main resources. You can find a listing of them in the Search functions section of the API frontpage.

## 11.3. What can be searched for¶

These are the main database entities one can search for:

Most of the time you’ll likely spend your time searching for Objects and the occasional Accounts.

So to find an entity, what can be searched for?

### 11.3.1. Search by key¶

The key is the name of the entity. Searching for this is always case-insensitive.

### 11.3.2. Search by aliases¶

Objects and Accounts can have any number of aliases. When searching for key these will searched too, you can’t easily search only for aliases.

rose.aliases.add("flower")


If the above rose has a key "Rose", it can now also be found by searching for flower. In-game you can assign new aliases to things with the alias command.

### 11.3.3. Search by location¶

Only Objects (things inheriting from evennia.DefaultObject) has a location. The location is usually a room. The Object.search method will automatically limit it search by location, but it also works for the general search function. If we assume room is a particular Room instance,

chest = evennia.search_object("Treasure chest", location=room)


### 11.3.4. Search by Tags¶

Think of a Tag as the label the airport puts on your luggage when flying. Everyone going on the same plane gets a tag grouping them together so the airport can know what should go to which plane. Entities in Evennia can be grouped in the same way. Any number of tags can be attached to each object.

rose.tags.add("flowers")


You can now find all flowers using the search_tag function:

all_flowers = evennia.search_tag("flowers")
roses_and_cactii = evennia.search_tag("thorny")


Tags can also have categories. By default this category is None which is also considered a category.

silmarillion.tags.add("fantasy", category="books")


Note that if you specify the tag you must also include its category, otherwise that category will be None and find no matches.

all_fantasy_books = evennia.search_tag("fantasy")  # no matches!
all_fantasy_books = evennia.search_tag("fantasy", category="books")


Only the second line above returns the two fantasy books. If we specify a category however, we can get all tagged entities within that category:

all_books = evennia.search_tag(category="books")


This gets all three books.

### 11.3.5. Search by Attribute¶

We can also search by the Attributes associated with entities.

For example, let’s give our rose thorns:

rose.db.has_thorns = True
wines.db.has_thorns = True
daffodil.db.has_thorns = False


Now we can find things attribute and the value we want it to have:

is_ouch = evennia.search_object_attribute("has_thorns", True)


This returns the rose and the wines.

Searching by Attribute can be very practical. But if you plan to do a search very often, searching by-tag is generally faster.

### 11.3.6. Search by Typeclass¶

Sometimes it’s useful to find all objects of a specific Typeclass. All of Evennia’s search tools support this.

all_roses = evennia.search_object(typeclass="typeclasses.flowers.Rose")


If you have the Rose class already imported you can also pass it directly:

all_roses = evennia.search_object(typeclass=Rose)


You can also search using the typeclass itself:

all_roses = Rose.objects.all()


This last way of searching is a simple form of a Django query. This is a way to express SQL queries using Python. See the next lesson, where we’ll explore this way to searching in more detail.

### 11.3.7. Search by dbref¶

The database id or #dbref is unique and never-reused within each database table. In search methods you can replace the search for key with the dbref to search for. This must be written as a string #dbref:

the_answer = self.caller.search("#42")
eightball = evennia.search_object("#8")


Since #dbref is always unique, this search is always global.

Warning

Relying on #dbrefs

In legacy code bases you may be used to relying a lot on #dbrefs to find and track things. Looking something up by #dbref can be practical - if used occationally. It is however considered bad practice to rely on hard-coded #dbrefs in Evennia. Especially to expect end users to know them. It makes your code fragile and hard to maintain, while tying your code to the exact layout of the database. In 99% of use cases you should organize your code such that you pass the actual objects around and search by key/tags/attribute instead.

## 11.4. Finding objects relative each other¶

It’s important to understand how objects relate to one another when searching. Let’s consider a chest with a coin inside it. The chests stand in a room dungeon. In the dungeon is also a door. This is an exit leading outside.

┌───────────────────────┐
│dungeon                │
│    ┌─────────┐        │
│    │chest    │ ┌────┐ │
│    │  ┌────┐ │ │door│ │
│    │  │coin│ │ └────┘ │
│    │  └────┘ │        │
│    │         │        │
│    └─────────┘        │
│                       │
└───────────────────────┘

• coin.location is chest.

• chest.location is dungeon.

• door.location is dungeon.

• room.location is None since it’s not inside something else.

One can use this to find what is inside what. For example, coin.location.location is the room. We can also find what is inside each object. This is a list of things.

• room.contents is [chest, door]

• chest.contents is [coin]

• coin.contents is [], the empty list since there’s nothing ‘inside’ the coin.

• door.contents is [] too.

A convenient helper is .contents_get - this allows to restrict what is returned:

• room.contents_get(exclude=chest) - this returns everything in the room except the chest (maybe it’s hidden?)

There is a special property for finding exits:

• room.exits is [door]

• coin.exits is [] (same for all the other objects)

There is a property .destination which is only used by exits:

• door.destination is outside (or wherever the door leads)

• room.destination is None (same for all the other non-exit objects)

You can also include this information in searches:

from evennia import search_object

# we assume only one match of each
dungeons = search_object("dungeon", typeclass="typeclasses.rooms.Room")
chests = search_object("chest", location=dungeons[0])
# find if there are any skulls in the chest
skulls = search_object("Skull", candidates=chests[0].contents)


More advanced, nested queries like this can however often be made more efficient by using the hints in the next lesson.

## 11.5. Summary¶

Knowing how to find things is important and the tools from this section will serve you well. These tools will cover most of your needs …

… but not always. In the next lesson we will dive further into more complex searching when we look at Django queries and querysets in earnest.